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Assignment 1: World View Chart Writing Assignment
Due Week 10 and worth 235 points
This assignment uses the information you have gathered for your weekly World View Chart Assignments. Choose one (1) category (origin of all things, nature of god, view of human nature, view of good and evil, etc.) from the chart to focus on for this assignment. Consider how the selected aspect relates to each of the religions covered and to your own social or work experiences.
Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:
- Select one (1) category from the completed World View Chart. Provide a rationale for choosing this category.
- Describe the selected content and explain the significance of the selected category across the religions studied.
- Provide one (1) specific example of how the selected category is manifested in your social environment.
- Use at least three (3) quality resources as references for the assignment and document your sources using APA Style for in-text citations and references. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.
- Write clearly and coherently using correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.
Your assignment must:
- Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
- Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
- Analyze what is meant by religion.
- Analyze the similarities and differences in the primary beliefs held by major religious traditions and the cultures in which these religions evolved.
- Describe the varieties of religious experience and practice in a wide range of cultures.
- Recognize how daily life within various religions and current affairs are influenced by religion.
- Develop written pieces that demonstrate an analysis of a topic relevant to the course.
- Use technology and information resources to research issues in religion.
- Write clearly and concisely about world religions using proper writing mechanics.
Click here to view the grading rubric.
|WORLD RELIGIONS – REL 212 World Religions
|HINDUISM & JAINISM
|Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe||Theories of the origin of the universe have been told as stories, riddles and instruction in India since early times. The three prominent religious movements, Hinduism and Jainism each had their own myths and speculations. In the Hindu tradition there was never one single theory. Among the divergent ideas we can distinguish: an early stage, which included themes such as there being nothing at the beginning, or the universe being created by mutual birth, or creation as the dismemberment of a sacrificial victim, or the gods arriving after the first moment of creation; and a later stage. The Jaina tradition had a very detailed theory of the spatial arrangement of the universe. This was essential for understanding where all the individual selves travel to after death, given their spiritual accomplishments (or lack of them).|
|Nature of God/Creator||Hinduism and Jainism are two ancient Indian religions. There are some similarities and differences between the two religions. Temples, gods, rituals, fasts and other religious objects of Jains are different from that of Hindus. .Jainism is derived from the word Jina, referring to a human being who has conquered all inner passions (like anger, attachment, greed and pride) and possess Kevala Jnana (pure infinite knowledge).
|View of Human Nature||Hinduism articulates several different, overlapping paths, for humans to follow. Although these paths may seem to be inconsistent, and even contradictory, fully developed Hinduism holds that they are in fact three different, and sometimes overlapping, means to fulfill the same religious goal. Jainism Human beings have an eternal soul that moves up or down the levels of existence depending on how much karma matter the soul carries. Human beings have free will and can achieve enlightenment and self-salvation through their own efforts.
|View of Good & Evil||Hinduism clearly identifies the difference between good and evil, but its definition of both is different from what we usually understand about them. According to Hindu scripture good or divinity is represented by purity, light, balance, immortality, order, virtue and selflessness. Evil is represented by impurity, darkness, imbalance or extremity, chaos, sinful conduct, and selfishness. Jainism do not believe in a God or gods in the way that many other religions do, but they do believe in divine (or at least perfect) beings who are worthy of devotion. Jainism view of God enables Jainism to explain the evil and suffering that exists in the world without the intellectual difficulties faced by religions that have an omnipotent, wholly good, creator God at their heart.|
|View of Salvation||In Hinduism, salvation means merging of soul with universal soul or eternal stay in paradise, in Jainism, it is action-less and peaceful existence. In Jainism, one definite path to attain liberation (moksha) is prescribed. The prescribed three fold path consists of the three jewels of Jainism (Right belief, Right knowledge, and Right conduct). In Hinduism, no one definite path to salvation is prescribed.|
|View of After Life||Many religions, whether they believe in the soul’s existence in another world like Christianity, Islam and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism is believe that one’s status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. Afterlife in Jainism is very intersecting and correlates with everything else we have talked about prior to this. You could end up in a variety of ways. It is depended on your karma; if you have shed all bad karma
then you are set.
|Practices and Rituals||Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa (ascetic practices) to achieve moksha. Jainism time is cyclical, moving through stages in which dharma grows progressively weaker and conditions in karma-bhumi deteriorate accordingly. Each of these cycles is marked by the return of the twenty-four Tirthankaras, who eternally refresh Jaina Dharma through their identical teachings.|
|Celebrations & Festivals||There are lots of cultural and traditional festivals celebrated by the people of Hindu religion all over the world. Hinduism is considered as the oldest organized religion of the world as well as counted as the third largest religion of the world. Some of the festivals are Lohri, Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Vasant Panchamj and Thaipusam. People from Jainism religion have lots of rituals and religious ceremonies to be celebrated as the festivals. Some of the festivals are Deep Diwali, Mahamastak Abhishek, Mahavir Jayanti and Paryushan.|
|Week 2 – Sources
|https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/cosmology-and-cosmogony-indian-theories-of. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jainism_and_Hinduism.||http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence.https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF8#q=jainism+view+of+human+nature||http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/h_goodandevil.asp. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/jainism/beliefs/god.shtml|
|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jainism_and_Hinduism.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afterlife. http://discussingjainism.weebly.com/afterlife.html.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hinduism. http://www.patheos.com/Library/Jainism/Ritual-Worship-Devotion-Symbolism.|
|Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe||The life cycle of a universe is cyclical. There is a period of its formation, a period where it endures, a period where it disintegrates and a period of void before a new universe forms from the luminous space that remains. That space, according to the Kalachakra Tantra (Wheel of Time) is inseparable from beginning less, universal consciousness.|
|Nature of God/Creator||There is no belief in a personal god. Buddhists believe that nothing is fixed or permanent and that change is always possible. The path to Enlightenment is through the practice and development of morality, meditation and wisdom.|
|View of Human Nature||The word nature (dhammatà or pakati) has several meanings but can be used in the sense of the basic quality of a thing. The English word comes from the Latin natus meaning `born’ and in the term `human nature’ refers to the inborn or innate character of human beings.|
|View of Good & Evil||In the context of Buddhism, good is identified with “the fundamental nature of enlightenment,” or absolute freedom and happiness resulting from profound self-knowledge. Evil indicates “fundamental darkness,” or life’s innate delusion which negates the potential of enlightenment and causes suffering for oneself and others.|
|View of Salvation||Buddhism began as a way to address the suffering that exists in the world, and was not overly-focused on ultimate salvation. That said, however, there was a clear doctrine of salvation in the Buddha’s teachings: Salvation in early Buddhism was nirvana, the extinguishing of the all karma that constitutes the self. Nirvana is not a place or a state, but the end of rebirth.|
|View of After Life||As should be evident, there is no single, consistent notion of the afterlife and salvation within Buddhism. There are diverse and contradictory ideas even within individual countries|
|Practices and Rituals||Most Buddhist practices have the central aim of avoiding future karmic problems (by avoiding harming others), karmic benefit (through helping others), as well as various practices and ritualized activities that focus the mind, help to purify it and to assist in one’s attainment of enlightenment and ridding of suffering for oneself and others. Like meditation, prayers and chanting and vegetarianism.|
|Celebrations & Festivals||There are quite a few Buddhists festivals and celebrations. Buddhist New Year, Vesak, Magha Puja Day, Asalha Puja Day, Uposatha, Kathina Ceremony, Abhidhamma Day, Songkran, Loy Krathong and The Ploughing Festival.|
|Week 3 – Sources
|DAOISM & CONFUCIANISM
|Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe||Daoism & Confucianism co-exist as complementary value systems. A belief that the cosmos is a manifestation of an impersonal self-generating physical-spiritual substance is called Qi, the “stuff” all things that exist are composed of.|
|Nature of God/Creator||Daoism or Taoism is primarily a Philosophy thus they don’t have a personal god. Their god maybe classified under Pantheism (“it literally means “God is All” and “All is God”.) Is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the Universe, or nature, and God are equivalent.” Confucianism One God. Ancestors also worshipped, though.|
|View of Human Nature||That humans can deviate from the creative rhythm of the universe, Tao, The Way. When they deviate, they destruct those around them including themselves. Daoism focuses on the way of nature and immortality. Confucianism focuses on the practice of virtue – setting good examples for others to follow to have a structured society.|
|View of Good & Evil||Daoism, the universe is neither good nor evil—it is beyond good and evil. The universe just is. The secret to living a good and harmonious life is through inactivity. One of the key concepts of Daoism is wu wei which is the accomplishing of tasks without assertion or aggression. According to some interpretations of Confucianism, suffering and evil are inevitable in human life, and can promote learning and growth. A mistake is not a “sin,” but an opportunity to learn and do better next time.|
|View of Salvation||Dao values life and salvation. As a religion, Daoism also values life. Its religious doctrines attach a great importance to salvation. Ge Hong considered salvation as Daoism’s greatest merit. Confucianism Humans should live and behave in such a way as to promote ideal social relations, rather than to act based on the expectations of rewards or punishments after death.|
|View of After Life||Daoism never have a fear of death or a desire to be dead because we believe that afterlife is within the real life. Dao who is the mother, is the source of everything. Dao is the ultimate reality which was there before the universe and it still exists. Confucianism afterlife is beyond human comprehension. Humans should live and behave in such a way as to promote ideal social relations, rather than to act based on the expectations of rewards or punishments after death.|
|Practices and Rituals||Practices and Rituals Daoism and Confucianism. There are two main types of ritual: 1) funeral rites or periodic rites on behalf of ancestors, which are performed only by some sects, sometimes in tandem with Buddhist priests. Daoism and Confucianism major festivals last for days, from two or three up to seven or more. Each of these rites consists of these stages: purification, invocation of the deities, prayers, consecration and offerings, hymns, dances, and perambulations.|
|Celebrations & Festivals||Confucianism celebrates Chinese New Year, Teacher Day, and Ancestor Day. Daoism celebrates Chinese New Year, Three Day Festival of the Dead and Lantern Festival.|
|Week 4 – Sources
|Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe||The Shinto people believe that the universe was created for them by their Gods. Kami, which is a single essence manifesting in multiple places, are the spirits perceived in the natural world. Kami means “That which is above” and also refers to that which evokes wonder and awe in us.|
|Nature of God/Creator||They are polytheistic, meaning they worship or believe in multiple deities|
|View of Human Nature||The idea of a human nature in Shinto is profoundly influenced by these points. Shinto speaks of man born, innocent, and essentially good. But there is suffering and unhappiness and evidence that people can be bad.|
|View of Good & Evil||Shinto’s understanding of good and evil. Shinto believes that humans are born pure and that badness or sins come later in life. Cleansing or purifying rituals can be used to wash away badness or sin.|
|View of Salvation||In Shinto, the concept of salvation is based on the belief that all living things have an essence, soul or spirt known as “kami”. Kami lives among us rather than in a glorified heaven.|
|View of After Life||Death means the kami is hiding in the invisible world, the same as birth means that someone has made an entrance into the visible world. What happens during life, however, can cause pollution and dirt to stick to a person’s karma and cling not only onto their kami but also their entire family.|
|Practices and Rituals||Dosojin Matsuri – celebration of fire
Harai – purification of cars, aircrafts
Hatsumode – Shrine visiting on New year’s day
|Celebrations & Festivals||The main Shintō rites and festivals are for celebrating the New Year, child birth, coming of age, planting and harvest, weddings, and groundbreaking ceremonies for new buildings. Death, funerals, and graveyards involve Buddhist rituals, not Shintō. Many national holidays in modern Japan are Shintō in origin. Shintōshrines hold regular festivals (matsuri祭祭) to commemorate important dates related to the shrine and its deity(s) and to pray for a wide range of blessings such as abundant rice harvests, fertility, health, and business success.|
|Week 5 – Sources
|Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe||A Divine singular God made all that exists. Everything in the universe was created by God and only by God. Judaism completely rejects the dualistic notion that evil was created by Satan or some other deity. All comes from God. This follows directly from the fact that God has no physical form. As one rabbi explained it to me, God has no body, no genitalia, therefore the very idea that God is male or female is patently absurd.|
|Nature of God/Creator||He is a single, whole, complete indivisible entity. He cannot be divided into parts or described by attributes. Any attempt to ascribe attributes to God is merely man’s imperfect attempt to understand the infinite|
|View of Human Nature||Humans were created in the image of God, meaning in his nature and essence. Humanity was formed with two impulses: a good impulse and an evil impulse. People have the ability to choose which impulse to follow.|
|View of Good & Evil||Because Jews have a belief of Adam and Eve and the evil snake enacting Eve, I would assume there is adi²erence between good and evil. There is also reference of Satan. However, good and evil do not seem to be emphasized much. So I would conclude Jews are worried about doing good in this life because of the covenant between God and man|
|View of Salvation||Judaism is a religion that focuses more on doing good and loving God. There is talk of heaven but it’s not emphasized on|
|View of After Life||Jewish teachings on the subject of afterlife are sparse: The Torah, the most important Jewish text, has no clear reference to afterlife at all|
|Practices and Rituals||The Jewish house of worship is a synagogue, worship and prayer and one of the most well-known Jewish religious practices is that of eating kosher foods|
|Celebrations & Festivals||The most important Jewish holy days are the Sabbath, the three pilgrimage festivals (Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot) and the two High Holy Days (Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur). For observant Jews, it is forbidden to work on any of these days.|
|Week 6 – Sources|| http://www.religion-religions.com/html/main_chapter.php?religion=Judaism.
|Cosmogony – Origin of the Universe||God created everything in his infinite wisdom. Creation was purposeful, not arbitrary, and therefore the universe is not morally neutral, but fundamentally good. In this purposeful creation, everything and everyone is intrinsically valuable. God’s design or purpose for creation reflects God’s intention that all creatures enjoy perfect love and justice.|
|Nature of God/Creator||Very similar to the beliefs of Judaism he is the Supreme Being.|
|View of Human Nature||Fundamental to the Christian understanding of human nature is the belief that the first humans were created in the image of God. The nature people were created with was good (cf. Gen. 1:31), but according to the Bible people were given a free will with which to choose for God or against him.|
|View of Good & Evil||Humans have wrestled with questions of good and evil since time immemorial without reaching any universally satisfactory conclusion. For Christians, all goodness flows from God’s inherent character, and evil is refusing to submit to His authority and love and serve Him. The problem of evil’s existence is a stickier issue, causing much debate among Christian scholars, theologians and philosophers. But Christian beliefs define the source of determining what is good and what is evil, describe human nature and provide Christians with tools for combating evil with good.|
|View of Salvation||Christians believe that by their trust and belief in the Holy Bible and Jesus Christ, the son of the Supreme Being they will reach salvation. According to Christian belief, salvation is made possible by the life, death, and resurrection of Christ, which in the context of salvation is referred to as the “atonement.”|
|View of After Life||Christian beliefs about the afterlife vary slightly between denominations and individual Christians, but the vast majority of Christians believe heaven is a place where believers go upon dying in order to enjoy the presence of God as well as other believers. In heaven, people are also freed from sin and all its various manifestation, like suffering and pain|
|Practices and Rituals||Christian practices vary by denomination, but common elements include a Sunday worship service, private and corporate prayer, study and reading of the Scriptures, and participation in rites such as baptism and communion (known as sacraments). Christian worship services generally include singing, prayer and a sermon.