In response to Nicholas and Joshua post, either agree or disagree with their answers on race and biology. Explain your rationale.
Anthropology as a discipline defines race as either the scientific concept of race or the culturally constructed concept of race. The scientific concept of race says that it is “referring to a population, or group of populations, within a species that has measurable, defining biological characteristics”. The culturally constructed concept of race defines it as “in which cultural ideologies and dynamics are linked with morphological traits”. It is difficult to use biological characteristics to categorize people into races because there are all different ways you can do it. You can categorize people based on the region of the world they live in or you can categorize them based on certain characteristics. The problem with geographic classifications though is that normally they cover a large area and to categorize people from a large area into one group is to make an oversimplification of a large diverse group. The problem with grouping by characteristics is that many times one or more traits is chosen and marks the trait as representative of the whole group. The problem with all these ways of trying to identify race is that they are wrong in the sense that humans have yet to evolve beyond the human race.
Anthropology as a discipline defines race by. Categorizing what region of people live where, their culture’s, traditions, religion’s, and pigmentation. There are many different theories on race and how to define what it is. Race is just evolution the skin genetically changes which redesigns the chemical make up of DNA. Giving individuals certain skin pigment.It is difficult to use biological characteristics to categorize people into races. To say only certain individuals act or only have or do certain things that others. Everything is some how intertwined or culture or beliefs traditions or skin pigment. Everything thing changes with evolution. The interesting story is how we rewrote it.
In your responses to Hope and Chelesea, compare and contrast different ethical views you may have. Additionally, mention potential solutions for ethical issues that they have identified.
I found the section on brain enhancement very interesting in this article. Brian enhancement will likely advance significantly as technology continues to advance, and that is where ethics will be extremely important. Brain enhancing drugs should be treated, ethically, just as any other drug. No one should be forced, coerced, or pressured into taking a medication that they are not comfortable with. This is where the importance of informed consent becomes evident. A person should be made aware of every single risk, consequence, benefit, and side effect, before consenting (or not consenting) to a treatment. Just as it should be with every drug, the patient should always have the option to either take, or not take brain enhancing drugs.
I was really intrigued when the author stated “the freedom to remain unenhanced may be difficult to maintain in a society where one’s competition is using enhancement (Farah, 2005).” It kind of reminded me of what our society looks like right now, with a new vaccine available. Someone could be uncomfortable with the idea of getting a very new vaccine, but get it anyways, because everyone else has. It is human nature to what to fit in, and it is kind of a dangerous factor to be present in a decision regarding medicine and treatment.
The research of brain enhancement will advance continuously, and the main ethical code to keep in mind, is informed consent. If someone is 100% aware of every single possible risk, and still gives their consent, let the research begin. The real issue is when someone gives their consent to a research trial or experimental medication/procedure and is not fully informed. That, to me, is manipulation and coercion which should never be present in the field of psychology, especially research.
I don’t see brain enhancement drugs as unethical, as long as they remain optional. What is unethical is creating a social system where one feels they need to conform in order to function within society, or where an individual is forced to take a medication they are uncomfortable with. That is unethical.