1. Describe the political and ideological effect of this statement by Pope Nicholas V
“We weighing all and singular the premises with due meditation, and noting that since we had formerly by other letters of ours granted among other things free and ample faculty to the aforesaid King Alfonso — to invade, search out, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans whatsoever, and other enemies of Christ whosesoever placed, and the kingdoms, dukedoms, principalities, dominions, possessions, and all movable and immovable goods whatsoever held and possessed by them and to reduce their persons to perpetual slavery” Nicholas V -Romanus Pontifex on January 5, 1455
2.What were the consequences and outcomes of the Popes’ conflict with the Holy Roman Emperors/ French Kings? Describe the Papal ideologies and actions in facing the secular powers. Describe the nature of the Lay Investiture Controversy. Please provide examples of the confrontations. How does the call to Crusades in 1095 by Urban II fit into the larger controversy/conflict?
3.Describe Absolutism in either France or England. Please analyze the nature of Absolutism, what caused monarchs to opt for Absolutist rule? What were the outcomes of the Absolutist experiments? Describe Mercantilism in context of the Absolutist monarchies.
4.Describe the nature and ideology/doctrine of the Protestant Reformation? What was Luther’s essential argument and how did it fundamentally challenge the Catholic Church and its doctrine? What was Calvin’s doctrinal argument? What were the political and economic consequences of the Protestant Reformation, both Lutheran and Calvinist?